A. Comply with Wisconsin's "Smart Growth" law for land use planning and resource management. This criterion is an option only for applications submitted before July 1, 2017.
The Brown County Comprehensive Plan, rewritten in 2004, and updated in 2007, was designed to meet the criteria of ”Smart Growth” planning in the state of Wisconsin. The plan includes many sections and chapters related to wildlife habitat protection and restoration. The most significant section is Chapter 8, titled “Natural and Cultural Resources.” This chapter of the comprehensive plan includes an inventory and analysis of shoreland corridors, wetlands, environmentally sensitive areas, woodlands, wildlife habitat, endangered species (including birds), etc. in order to allow the “…facilitation of the movement of wildlife and provision of game and non-game wildlife.” Recommendations from the chapter include encouraging local units of government in their effort to the “Tree City USA” program, urban forestry efforts, and to identify and protect significant natural resource features. Such encouragement was the driving force behind performing a bird study with the Town of Ledgeview as part of the Town’s Park and Recreation Plan amongst other projects.
Red Shouldered Hawk Nesting
For over the past forty years, an annual research study has been conducted at the Brown County Restoration Camp Facility. This long-term study identifies the nesting locations of the state threatened Red-shouldered Hawks on the property, documents annual reproduction rates and also marks the individuals with USFWS bands. Annual reports are submitted to the WDNR Bureau of Endangered Resources.
Nest Structure Monitoring
Fifty nest structures at the LH Barkhausen Waterfowl Preserve are monitored annually by volunteers to document species use, reproduction rates and predation rates. Specifically, this program monitors the American Bluebird Society nest boxes that are used by Eastern Bluebirds, Tree Swallows and House Wrens at the Preserve. Survey results show this nest box program is very successful and has enhanced populations of these three bird species on site.
Many artificial nesting structures have been erected and maintained throughout the Park System. Boxes for cavity nesters such as Wood Ducks/Hooded Mergansers, Bluebirds/Wrens/Tree Swallows, and “henhouses” for Mallard Ducks and “gander landers” for geese have all been established to provide nesting locations and protection from predators in an effort to increase bird populations.
Within the water impoundments at the LBH Barkhausen Waterfowl Preserve, islands were created for waterfowl nesting to reduce predation on Canada Geese, Mallards, and Blue-Winged Teal.
Furthermore, the Brown County Port and Solid Waste Department pioneered the effort to create prairie habitat on its two closed and monitored landfills in the early 1990’s. It sought and received WI State Department of Natural Resources approval to plant native wild flowers and prairie grasses on closed and final covered engineered sanitary landfills. In addition, it instituted a policy of managing the 200 acres as bird habitat by not mowing and other maintenance activities such as brush cutting only when necessary for amphibian habitat concerns.
Bird nesting boxes were constructed by local middle high school students and Boy Scout troops. They were placed on the closed landfill sites and on adjacent and future landfill properties. Over 110 nest boxes have been continuously maintained since 1993 and since that time successfully producing over 2,300 Tree Swallows and a similar number of Bluebirds.
B. Describe organized bird monitoring or data obtained from researchers or volunteers in the local park system. (Exclusions: Programs that receive credit under 4C: Christmas Bird Count, Great Backyard Bird Count, Swift Night Out)
Nest box construction, placement and monitoring in Brown County is accomplished by volunteers and off-duty Brown County staff on Brown County and private lands. As such, the Brown County Park System has implemented several monitoring programs for birds within the park system.
C. Provide evidence (e.g., official designation of natural areas, easements, etc.) that existing bird habitat within community limits has legal protection. (Exclusions: Leash laws; prohibitions against disturbing nests and wildlife; areas consisting primarily of mowed grass)
Wisconsin State statutory protection for waterfowl areas includes the 915 acre Barkhausen Waterfowl Refuge and further protections are listed in the following ordinances.
The Brown County Park and Outdoor Recreation Plan, rewritten in 2008, provides a planning document that promotes the stewardship of natural, historical and cultural resources throughout Brown County. The plan addresses the needs of birds and other wildlife by seeking to “maintain wildlife corridors to adequate linkage for wildlife movement and about wildlife areas…,” and by verifying that recreational areas “…do not adversely affect the preservation and protection of wildlife habitat areas.” The park plan also seeks to protect natural resources through wildlife management, protection of forestlands, maintenance of wildlife population levels, encouragement of native biological diversity, promotion of stewardship projects, providing for sustainable development, discouraging private development that encroaches upon nature, making natural areas accessible without destroying natural features and habitat while controlling minimal access in passive areas. This is all done in an effort to protect, retain, and regain natural habitat for plant and animal species, including birds.
The Brown County Sewage Plan, rewritten in 2002, allows Brown County to operate as an agent of the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources for sewer service areas and environmentally sensitive area protection and amendments. When sites are reviewed using the Sewage Plan, one major component that must always be addressed is the “protection and provision of wildlife habitat.” This includes habitat for bird species, with a focus on areas associated with environmentally sensitive area features such as rivers, ponds, lakes, wetlands, and steep slopes. Amendments may not be approved without proof that habitat is not disrupted, unless a restoration or mitigation plan is submitted and approved by Brown County staff, the Brown County Planning Commission Board of Directors, and the WDNR Bureau of Watershed Management. The Brown County Sewage Plan also encourages that the development of shorelands meet standards set forth in NR 115, Brown County Chapter 22 related to shorelands and wetlands and Chapter 23 related to floodplains.
The Brown County Subdivisions Ordinance, rewritten 2002 and updated in 2009, replicates the requirements of the Brown County Sewage Plan related to the protection of environmentally sensitive areas. The Subdivisions Ordinance requires that all environmentally sensitive areas, and buffer areas adjacent to such features, be properly shown on plats and certified survey areas before the documents can be recorded. This helps property owners and developers identify lands that should be protected due to its importance for wildlife habitat and water quality, including habitat for waterfowl and other bird species. In 2010, Brown County PALS staff began working with staff specialized in planning, zoning and property listing in order to adapt environmentally sensitive areas into a format that replicates the Sewage Plan, Subdivisions Ordinance, Shorelands and Wetlands Ordinance. The proposal is in draft form but has been reviewed by a subcommittee developing the Subdivision’s Ordinance rewrite, and has been reviewed by the WDNR Bureau of Watershed Management.
The Brown County Shorelands and Wetlands ordinance does not include elements to protect environmentally sensitive areas. However, in 2010-2011, the ordinance has been undergoing a rewrite to include enforcement and references related to the protection of wildlife habitat as identified in the Brown County Sewage Plan, Subdivisions Ordinance, and NR 115. A proposed ordinance potentially will include statements such as, “Environmentally sensitive areas (ESAs) are portions of the landscape, including valuable natural resource features that should be protected from intensive development. ESAs shall include all lakes, rivers, streams, wetlands, floodways, and certain other significant and unique natural resource features. Furthermore, areas of steep slopes (slopes 12% or greater) when located wholly or partially within these natural resource features shall also be included as an ESA.” The proposed ordinance also establishes specific “…impervious surface standards to protect water quality and fish and wildlife…,” may impact lands within 300 feet of a stream, and establishes shoreland setbacks. The ordinance also establishes mitigation plan requirements for shoreline buffer restoration and enhancement plans.
The Control of Construction Site Erosion Resulting from Land Disturbing Activities and the Control of Post Construction Storm Water Management ordinances provide construction site erosion control standards and reduce the amount of post-construction storm water pollutants that could affect wildlife habitat and waters of the state, including bird habitat. The standards meet and exceed standards of NR 115. The ordinance affects Brown County highways within the urbanized areas of Brown County.
The Brown County MS4 Permit Storm Water Ordinance, written in 2009, is an adaption of storm water ordinances written in the Subdivisions Ordinance. The MS4 Ordinance addresses illicit discharges on county highway systems within the urbanized area. The affected area includes roadside ditches, swales, and ultimately rivers connecting to waters of the state. Ditches and rivers serve as habitat for wildlife, including birds. The MS4 Storm Water Ordinance provides information regarding swale connections and an efficient response procedure that minimizes the damages to bird habitat and water habitat that could occur if a spill was not addressed. All county highway systems and related outfalls that are potential illicit discharge sites have been located using GPS system and mapped using a GIS program. Likewise, all sites are field visited at least once every five years to verify damage to habitat has not occurred.
In 2013, a two year partnership project began to address the infrastructure needs associated with the 33 acre couth wetland impoundment of the Barkhausen Waterfowl Preserve. In addition, a 56 acre tract of the north end of the preserve is targeted for aggressive invasive woody plant species. Both of these projects will aid in both the creation of habitat and removing hazards to birds.
D. Document that current municipal planning seeks to provide additional bird habitat.
See 1C above.
F. Show that your community offers the public information on how they can control and remove invasive species in order to improve or maintain bird habitat.
The main goal of the Brown County UW-Extension Invasive Species Program is to help maintain biodiversity. This is done through the control of invasive species including Buckthorn, Garlic Mustard, Honeysuckle, and Phragmites. Efforts in 2013, focused on controlling a number of invasive species. During the year, staff worked on alternative methods of control including cutting the Garlic Mustard in early flower, spraying the Garlic Mustard while bolting on low quality sites, using selective herbicides and establishing native grasses on lower quality sites. In addition, Phragmites was sprayed in 10 Brown County townships. Phragmites was also sprayed aerially in the AOC zone of the lower Green Bay basin, including Barkhausen Waterfowl Preserve. This was done by a WDR grant. Buckthorn control was done mostly in the Baird Creek Parkway located in the eastern part of Green Bay and extending into eastern Brown County. Efforts were also made to make better use of selective herbicides and do some more seeding of native plants species into areas managed through the invasive species program.
G. Document that there is a segment of the Great Wisconsin Birding and Nature Trail or a designated Important Bird Area within or adjacent to your community.
Brown County is listed in the Great Wisconsin Birding and Natural Trail Guide. The Brown County Parks System alone holds 4 out of the 6 Brown County spots listed. Barkhausen Waterfowl Preserve is a 915 acre waterfowl refuge and a natural area that offers a picnic area, bird watching, hiking and cross country skiing. The Reforestation Camp is a 1543 acre County managed forest and natural area that also contains the N.E.W. Zoo, fishing, hiking, cross country skiing, mountain biking and bird watching.
L. Show that your community has restored at least two acres of woodlands, wetlands, or prairie.
Brown County has restored several acres of previously degraded wetlands throughout the county. Much of this was completed by the Land and Conservation Department through their Pike Spawning efforts.
M. Demonstrate that your community offers a program for private property owners who are interested in dealing with invasive plants that have significant negative impacts on bird habitat.
The staff at Barkhausen Waterfowl Preserve have direct contact with numerous community members, and offer assistance in removing Buckthorn and Garlic Mustard from various sites. Often times this involves an on-site tutorial. Friends of the Fox River trail are provided with all the necessary equipment for cutting and herbicide treatment of Buckthorn cut-stumps along the County’s state trails. The Friends group has donated over 50 volunteer service hours.
N. Show that your community works on public lands to control invasive species that have significant negative impacts on bird habitat.
The Parks Department works with local Future Farmers of America Clubs and citizens on controlling Garlic Mustard, Phragmites and Dame’s Rocket.
The Barkhausen Waterfowl Preserve Interpretive Center is over 85 years old and has a 35 foot tall masonry chimney. Plans to cap the chimney to prevent moisture from entering have been abandoned due to the Chimney Swift colony that utilizes it.
R. Show how your community aids a local youth group (e.g., Boy Scouts of America, Girl Scouts of USA, 4-H Club, etc.) or conservation group in bird conservation projects (e.g., bluebird trail, habitat restoration, Wood Duck nest boxes, etc.).
Each spring Barkhausen staff arranges the monitoring of waterfowl nesting structures on site and adjacent private property. Assisted by Delta Waterfowl they have been able to erect over 20 additional Wood Duck nesting boxes on adjacent property. Previous accomplishments in this area have also already been referenced to in the above basic criteria narrative, notably subcategory 1B and 4F.
Community Forest Management
F. OTHER: Demonstrate in a narrative.
The Brown County land and Water Conservation Department, in cooperation with the Brown County Conservation Alliance, accepts orders for its annual tree sale. Species include Concolor Fir, Colorado Blue Spruce, Highbush Cranberry, and Silver Maple along with some of the annual offerings of Pine, Oak, and Maple. Also available for purchase are tree tubes, 3’x3’ weed barriers, fertilizer, and planting gel.
Brown County’s Agricultural Shoreland Protection Ordinance requires a 35’ wide vegetated buffer strip along every stream in the county’s unincorporated municipalities. Cost-sharing may be available to install riparian buffers. In 2011, over 7 miles of buffer strips were installed.
Located along the west shore of southern Green Bay, the Suamico/Little Suamico River watersheds have some of the most productive wetlands remaining in the Great Lakes system. In fact, more than 50% of Lake Michigan’s remaining wetlands are located along the west shore of Green Bay. Small perennial and intermittent streams and connected wetlands provide high quality fish spawning and rearing habitat, especially for Northern Pike which reside in Green Bay as adults. Many other wildlife species, from songbirds to waterfowl, also benefit from this type of habitat. Green Bay’s ecosystem however has been severely disrupted by wetland loss and mismanaged stream networks from intense development pressure and agriculture practices.
The scarcity of top predator species such as Northern Pike has been recognized as a significant problem in the waters of the Bay. With over 70% of historic wetlands along the west shore already having been lost, this project presents a tremendous opportunity to have a positive impact on the entire ecosystem of the bay by preserving and/or restoring the remaining intermittent and perennial stream/wetland networks that still exist in these watersheds. Stabilization and protection of these areas will reduce sedimentation and nutrients which now flow into Green Bay from land within the watersheds.
In 2013, Brown County was awarded a grant from Ducks Unlimited for $262,000 to maintain grassland nesting areas and improving water impoundments for shorebirds and other hemi-marsh species. The county has completed this grant and recently entered into a grant agreement for another large waterfowl habitat project with USFWS and Ducks Unlimited for 2015-2016.
Limiting or Removing Threats to Birds
A. Describe your community’s educational program to control free-roaming cats and/or the manner in which you actively publicize the Cats Indoors! initiative.
The City of Green Bay, which comprises half of Brown County’s residences, does not allow any animals to be at large within the City. The City has an ordinance that requires animals to be confined when it is off premises. Barkhausen Waterfowl Preserve actively publicizes and promotes the “Cats Indoors!” program.
B. Demonstrate that your community provides property owners with information on how to protect birds from window strikes (e.g., online links, brochures).
Brown County actively provides literature and guidance for the community on preventing bird window-strikes.
B. Provide web links or a community newsletter demonstrating that your community educates property owners on methods to create and enhance backyard habitat for birds.
An article entitled “Bird Feeding 101” appeared in the volume 1 issue 1 edition of A Good Reed, which is a Barkhausen Waterfowl Preserve publication. The article provided great tips on filling your bird feeder to attract certain birds, positioning your bird feeder and also appropriate suet feeders.
Numerous townships within Brown County annually participate in both the Christmas Bird Count and Great Backyard Bird Count. In addition, residents also participate in the following:
Migrating Raptor Banding- migrating hawks and saw-whet owls are banded and released at Barkhausen Waterfowl Preserve in the fall
Cavity Nester Program- Bluebird Restoration Association of Wisconsin and Green Bay Botanical Garden sponsored presentation by ornithologist.
Annual Crane Count- Bay Area Bird Club sponsored activity.
April Field Trip- sponsored by Bay Area Bird Club to Lake Michigan to count Loons, Grebes, Scooters, and other early migrants.
D. Describe your community-sponsored annual bird festival. This must be a multi-day event or a truly exceptional one-day event.
Each year the Barkhausen Waterfowl Preserve conducts all day programming centered around International Migratory Bird Day. Also, it is held in conjunction with the annual Spring’s Wings event held in Green Bay.
E. Illustrate a program that involves schools, garden clubs, or other organizations in bird conservation activities.
Volunteers conducted migrating hawk and saw-whet owl banding at Barkhausen during the fall. For several of the Night Hike programs offered at Barkhausen, participants were able to see saw-whet owls and learn about the banding process and the information learned from banding operations.
Bluebird house building workshops are available at Barkhausen Preserve. The hardships Bluebirds have faced and the recommendations to help attract Bluebirds to landowners’ properties are explained. Participants build a small cedar Bluebird house and learn ideal areas to place it on their own. Articles from the Department of Wisconsin Natural Resources and the North American Bluebird Association are made available for take home reading.
In addition, Brown County advocates many Scouting opportunities. The activities of area Webelos to earn their Naturalist Badges include:
Name six wild animals that live at Barkhausen, their habits and where they live
Describe 3 activities that take place at the Center and the importance of those activities
Explain what migration means and the term “flyway”
List 4 ways in which humans affect their environment and how these ultimately affect the natural world particularly related to the food chain
Name two poisonous animals and plants in Wisconsin
Students learning Winter Wildlife Tracks and Sign must be able to:
Describe 5 different types of animal signs
Make conclusions on behavior of animals based upon their tracks
Differentiate between various species by their tracks and sign
Students learning about winter adaptations and hardships of animals living in northern environments during winter months must be able to do:
Name 2 adaptations of a Snowshoe Hare that help it survive through the winter
Investigate several different animal signs found during the winter
Describe 3 different strategies that animals use for winter survival
K. Demonstrate that your community actively raises awareness of its bird assets. Examples include placing a remote web camera on a nest platform, offering bird watching field trips, or creating a significant educational resource on your community's bird life.
High Flyer-level accomplishments in this category have already been mentioned in the above basic criteria narrative, notably in subcategories 4C and 4E.
Brown County held “Spring’s Wings!” All associated activities and bird hikes are free of charge and reservations are not required. A complete listing of weekend activities can be found on Bay Beach’s website. This event was a multi-day IMBD celebration in 2016 featuring:
Saturday, May 14th: Spring’s Wings General Event Activities
Bay Beach Wildlife Sanctuary 11 am – 3 pm
Bird house/feeder building
Bird of prey programs
Information booths by Green Bay Duck Hunters, NEW Audubon, Bluebird Restoration and Bird City
Barkhausen Waterfowl Preserve, Suamico 9am
Naturalist Led Bird Hike for Families and Beginners
Barkhausen Waterfowl Preserve, Suamico 10 am – noon
Green Bay Duck Hunters will hold a duck rescue demonstration
Izaak Walton League, Osprey Point, De Pere 9 am - noon
Visitors can observe an osprey nest
Scheduled Bird Hikes (For Bird Enthusiasts of All Types)
Bay Beach Wildlife Sanctuary: 6:30 am; 9:30 am; 1:00 pm
Christa McAuliffe Park: 6:00 am
Barkhausen Waterfowl Preserve, Suamico: 9:00 (guided family bird hike)
Izaak Walton League, Osprey Point, De Pere: 9:00 am - noon